Graddol (2006) wrote English Next, which explores:
- how students worldwide are learning subjects through the medium of English as a foreign language,
- how English language teachers are becoming redundant,
- and how English is becoming more of a key life skill rather than a subject to learn for the sake of learning
Science is, in itself, a language and each different science (biology, physics, chemistry) is a separate language.
If chemistry is a language as well as a body of content, then it needs to be taught as a language as well as a body of content. So, what is the language of chemistry?
Kelly K. (2006) describes three areas of language for any classroom context. He states that an awareness of these “languages” as well as a pedagogy for dealing with the language, is important for the science teacher working with learners in an additional language.
The data and impetus for this discussion come from a 45-minute secondary-school chemistry lesson in a German Grammar School delivered through the medium of English. The students, who are 14 and 15, are just starting to study chemistry through English and their chemistry teacher is also the English teacher.
The lesson has students observe a laboratory experiment in which sulfur is burned and made to react with water to produce sulfuric acid. Students then write up a protocol based on their observations.
The critical review is a writing task that asks you to summarize and evaluate a text. The critical review can be of a book, a chapter, or a journal article. Writing the critical review usually requires you to read the selected text in detail and to also read other related texts so that you can present a fair and reasonable evaluation of the selected text.
Although this may be an unfamiliar exercise, it is not as complex a task as writing an essay requiring a lot of library research. Your journal article review is written for a reader (eg, your supervisor, lecturer or tutor) who is knowledgeable in the discipline and is interested not just in the coverage and content of the article being reviewed, but also in your critical assessment of the ideas and argument that are being presented by the author.
To be critical does not mean to criticize in a negative manner. Rather it requires you to question the information and opinions in a text and present your evaluation or judgement of the text. To do this well, you should attempt to understand the topic from different perspectives (i.e. read related texts) and in relation to the theories, approaches and frameworks in your course.
Here you decide the strengths and weaknesses of a text. This is usually based on specific criteria. Evaluating requires an understanding of not just the content of the text, but also an understanding of a text’s purpose, the intended audience and why it is structured the way it is. Analyzing requires separating the content and concepts of a text into their main components and then understanding how these interrelate, connect and possibly influence each other.
As a graduate student in Educational Science you will have many opportunities to give a presentation on your, or others, work to your peers. Your presentation may be given in your research lab, a graduate course, an undergraduate tutorial or lab session, a conference presentation or a poster presentation. The goal of this topic is to provide you with some tools to help you design and deliver your presentation.
- What is this paper about?
- What is the thesis (main point) of this paper?
- What are the weaknesses of this work?
- What are the strengths of this work?
- How does this work relate to other research that I am familiar with?
- What are the contributions of this work?
- How could this work be applied? What was the main experimental question(s) that the authors asked?
- Why did they ask this question?
- Were there any particularly important previous studies that prompted this work?
- What method(s) did the authors use to address their question(s)?
- What results did they obtain?
- Can you explain/describe each and every figure in the paper?
- What do these results mean?
- How do these results add to, change, update, etc. our understanding of the problem or the solutions?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of the work?
- What new questions are revealed?
At the same time you consider the specific purpose of your presentation, you may want to pick a generic presentation purpose to help you guide the design of your presentation.
One model that can be used to plan an effective presentation (and that helps deal with the questions above) is called the Presentation Basics Model.
[KLIK DI SINI untuk mendownload materi kuliah Bahasa Inggris Kimia_Planning a Scientific Presentation]
Do take advantage of templates. All the design work has been done for you. Do pick simple, basic templates from your PowerPoint or Keynote software for academic presentations. Don’t choose cute or ornate templates for academic presentations. Don’t clutter and distract from your presentation with too many fonts and colors.
Provide the title and date. List the name of your faculty advisor. Include a professional and tasteful picture of yourself, if you’d like (a small headshot is sufficient). Divide your presentation into logical parts. Devote a slide at the beginning of your presentation for the outline. Tell your audience exactly what you are going to present.
Follow your outline throughout your presentation. Don’t have too much text on slides. Apply “The 6 x 7 rule”: No more than 6 lines per slide, No more than 7 words per line. Stick to one font size for bullet text. Don’t resize text to fit it on one slide: insert a new slide. Be judicious with color choices in tables and charts. Keep colors consistent, use a set of three or four colors throughout the presentation
Put a title on each slide. Try to summarize your slide in a few words. Avoid long titles; they are cumbersome to read and display. Avoid using chart or table titles as your slide title.
Structure each slide’s material to accompany and support what you’re telling your audience. Write summary points in a bullet list; don’t just type exactly what you’re saying. Focus on a few points; don’t give information overload
Make sure that your talk emphasizes the key ideas and skips over what is standard, obvious, or merely complicated. Details are out of place in an oral presentation. This rule cannot be over-emphasized. The audience generally wants an overview of the work so that they can determine whether additional details are worth pursuing.
A good speaker always lets the audience know exactly where they are and where they are headed. Your presentation should be broken into several distinct parts, each with its own objectives and style. Each part should be dearly delineated. The audience should be steered gently from one part to the next.
Make sure that your talk is prepared at the right level. Think through the average level of expertise in your audience and present your results accordingly. Don’t try to impress unless it is a job interview.
Bring something to show the audience (e.g., a membrane device), if possible. Be sure to add figures and photos to your slides, where appropriate. Digital photos are an easy way to share with the audience the physical arrangement of your experimental setup.